Physicist Richard Muller believes that when a new space is created, a new time is created. He says that trips to the future or to the past are impossible. Let’s try to find an answer to “Why does time go by?”
Richard Muller is a physicist at the University of California at Berkeley and one day his wife asked him: “Can physics allow people to travel in time? Not that it was the first time the scientist thought about it-he explained the concept of the flow of time to his students every day-but the question encouraged him to change the way it is approached. Why does the arrow of time inexorably flow into the future, constantly creating new “now”? Muller believes that the classical approach to explaining it is wrong, and proposes a new theory.
“Time has been an obstacle to our understanding of the Universe,” says Professor Emeritus of Berkeley. “During my career, I have seen a lot of nonsense about time, and I realized that I had a lot to say after having taught the concept over many decades … I have some completely new ideas that never Have appeared in (scientific) literature. “
Why does time go by?
And Muller’s new idea is that time is expanding because space is expanding. “The new principle of physics is that space and time are linked; When a new space is created, a new time is created “, he adds.
Since the Big Bang explosion that triggered the expansion of the Universe 13.8 billion years ago, the cosmos has been growing, something that physicists can measure as Hubble’s expansion. They do not think of it as stars that fly away from each other, but as stars embedded in space, and space in continuous expansion.(Why does time go by)
Muller relies on Albert Einstein, who built his theory of general relativity-the theory that explains everything from black holes to cosmic evolution-into the idea of four-dimensional space-time. Space is not the only thing in expansion; Space-time is expanding. And we are sailing on the crest of the wave, what we call “now .”
“Every moment, the Universe becomes a little bigger, and there is a little more time, and it is this time frame that we refer to as now,” he writes. “The future does not yet exist … it is being created. Now it is at the limit, the front of shock, it is the new time that is coming from nowhere, the leading edge of time.
Traveling to the future, impossible
Because the future does not yet exist, we can not travel to it, says the scientist. In addition, going back in time is equally unlikely, since, in order to reverse time, the amount of space in the Universe would have to be reduced, at least locally. That happens, for example, when a star explodes or a black hole evaporates. But they reduce time so infinitesimally that the effect is hidden in the quantum uncertainty of measurement, an example of what physicists call cosmic censorship.
“The only example I can think of is the evaporation of a black hole, and in that case, it turns out to be censored. So I could not come up with any way of reversing time, and my basic conclusion is that time travel is not possible, “says the researcher.
Fusion of black holes creates a millisecond
Muller and his colleague Shaun Maguire, a theoretical physicist at Caltech, believe that this theory could be tested using the LIGO experiment, which has detected twice the gravitational waves created by black hole fusion.
If Muller and Maguire are right, when two black holes merge and create a new space, they must also create a new time, which would delay the signal of the gravitational waves that LIGO observes from Earth.
“The merger of two black holes creates millions of cubic kilometers of new space, which means creating a new time,” says Muller. In the fusion detected by LIGO last February, two black holes weighing approximately 29 and 36 times the mass of the Sun, produced a final black hole with an approximate weight of 62 solar masses. The new space created in the merger would produce about 1 millisecond of new time, which is close to the detection level of LIGO. An event similar to a third of a distance would allow LIGO to detect the newly created time.
Muller explains his theory in a recently published book, “Now: The Physics of Time” (WWNorton). According to him, up to Einstein, the flow of time had not been studied by itself. Einstein, however, was unable to explain the flow of time to the future rather than to the past, despite the fact that theories of physics work equally well forward or backward in time. And even though he could calculate different rates of time, depending on speed and severity, he had no idea why time was flowing. The dominant idea today for the direction of time came from Arthur Eddington, who helped validate Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Eddington proposed the idea that time flows in the direction of increasing disorder in the Universe or entropy. Because the second law of thermodynamics states that entropy can never decrease, time always increases.
The celebrated astrophysicist Stephen Hawking, in his book “A Brief History of Time,” does not address the issue of the flow of time, other than to say that it is “evident” that increasing time comes from increasing entropy.
Muller thinks that’s incorrect. Life and everything we do on Earth, be it building houses or making teacups, implies a decrease in local entropy, even though the total entropy of the Universe increases. “We are constantly discarding excess entropy as garbage, throwing it towards infinity in the form of heat radiation,” says Muller. The entropy of the Universe increases, but the local entropy, the entropy of the Earth and of life and civilization, is constantly diminishing. “
Muller admits that his new theory of time can have observable effects only in the cosmic realm. The creation of time could be noticeable during the rapid cosmic inflation that occurred just after the Big Bang, when space and time expanded much, much faster than today. Trust that LIGO can give you the reason (or not) in the coming years.