Bible stories evolved slowly for centuries before the existence of orthodox religions. Many cults of beliefs spread stories and myths that are probably transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation before people wrote them down.
Many of the stories originally came from the Egyptian and Sumerian cults. All these primitive religions practiced the polytheism, including the first Hebrews. Some of the earliest records of stories that later entered the Old Testament came from thousands of small cylinder seals depicting creation stories excavated from the Mesopotamian period.
These early artifacts and works of art (dating to 2500 BC) established the basis of the Garden of Eden stories at least a thousand years before it affected Hebrew mythology.
Virtually all human civilizations in the Middle East, before and during biblical times, practiced some form of goddess worship. Archaeologists have confirmed that early laws, government, medicine, agriculture, architecture, metallurgy, wheeled vehicles, ceramics, textiles and written language had initially developed in societies that worshiped a goddess.
Many times “gods” in the Bible refers to “goddesses”
After several years the goddesses acquired a more warlike touch with the influence of the north invaders who slowly replaced the goddesses with their mountain war gods. So why does not the Bible mention anything about goddesses?
In fact, it does, but disguised to turn the name of the goddesses into masculine terms. Many times “gods” in the Bible refers to goddesses. Ashtoreth, or Asherah, named of the masculine sort, for example, really refers to Astarte – the great goddess.
The Old Testament does not even have a word to refer to any goddess. The goddesses, sometimes, refer to the Hebrew word “Elohim” (masculine plural form),
which later religious incorrectly translated to the singular “God”. The authors of the Bible converted the symbols of the ancient goddess into icons of evil. As such, the serpents, the tree of knowledge, the horns (of the bull), were associated with Satan.
The end result gave women the status of inferiority, a result that we still see to this day.
The Old testament
The Old Testament consists of a body of literature distributed in a period from about 1450 BC to 200 BC There are no original writings of the Old Testament. However, there are hundreds of copy fragments that became the Old Testament.
These fragments consist of cuneiform tablets, papyrus paper, leather tops and the famous Dead Sea Scrolls . The scribes of the Old Testament wrote in classical Hebrew, except for some parts written in Aramaic.
The traditional Hebrew scribes wrote the texts with consonants, but later the rabbis added vowels for the verbal pronouncement. Of course, the rabbis did their best to choose the vowels that thought to give words their meaning and pronouncement.
In the second century AD, or even earlier, the Rabbis collected a text of manuscripts that had survived the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 and on this basis established the traditional or Masoretic text, so-called of the Hebrew word Massorah.
This text incorporated the errors of generations of copyists, and despite the care that was given, many errors of later copyists also found their way to it.
The oldest manuscripts of this text date from the 9th to 11th centuries. It comes mainly from these texts that religious have used for the current translations of the Old Testament.
The New testament
The New Testament has even fewer surviving texts. Scholars think that these were written two hundred years after Jesus’ death.
There is no evidence that the New Testament comes from the alleged original apostles or from any other person who has seen the supposed Jesus. Although the ancient surviving Christian texts came from Paul, he had never seen the earthly Jesus. There is nothing in Paul’s letters that insinuates the existence of the Gospels or even the need for such memoirs of Jesus Christ.
The earliest copy of the found New Testament still consists of a small fragment of the Gospel of John. Scholars dated the period style small papyrus flake from his writing to about the first half of the second century of our era.
The language of most of the New Testament consists of ancient Greek. Curiously, there were many competing Christian cults in the early years after Jesus’ supposed death. Some sects saw the universe in dualisms of goodness and sin, of light and darkness, god and the Devil. Other Christian sects performed strange rituals, some of which involved the swallowing of the seminal fluid, thought as a sacred substance. Many other Christians also wrote mystical stories and in the second century there were more than a dozen Gospels, along with a whole library of other texts. These include letters from Jesus to foreign kings, letters from Paul to Aristotle, and stories from the disciples.
In one of these secret Gospels, Jesus is described as bringing nude young men to secret rites of initiation in the Garden of Gethsemane. They lived Christian gnostics (believers) who believed that the church itself was derived from the devil to keep a man of God and realize his true nature. In those first centuries of Christianity orthodoxy did not exist and when an organized orthodox church finally arrived, it was defined, almost without realizing it, in the argument against many of the Gnostic sects.
The idea of the bible began in Heresy
The idea of the Bible as a single “unalterable and sacred” group of texts began in heresy and was then extended and used by ecclesiastics in their efforts to define orthodoxy.
One of the Bible’s most influential editors, Irenaeus of Lyon, decided that there should be only four Gospels such as the four zones of the world, the four winds, the four divisions of the man’s estate, and the four forms of the first living beings.
Leon Of Mark, the calf of Luke, the man of Matthew and the eagle of John. In one fell swoop, Irenaeus had outlined the sacred book of the Christian church and had left out the other Gospels. Irenaeus also wrote what Christianity did not include, and in this way, Christianity became an orthodox faith.
A work of Irenaeus, Against the Heresies , There have been more than a hundred different versions of the Bible, written in most of the languages of the time, including Greek, Hebrew, and Latin. Some versions left out certain biblical stories and others told added stories. The full versions of the Old and New Testaments probably ended around the 200-300 years of our era, although many disputed the authenticity of some books that later ended up as apocryphal (non-canonical or questionable authorship). For example, the book of Ecclesiastical appears in the Catholic Bible, but not in Protestant versions.
The doctrines of salvation of Christianity survived and flourished because they provided the priesthood with considerable power. Only the priests had the keys of salvation and could threaten unbelievers with eternal punishment. Therefore, in the evolution of Christianity in the last two thousand years with priests prey to human fears, religion has demonstrated extraordinary powers of survival. Even without priests, the various versions of the Bible have had more influence in the history of the world, in the minds of men than in any other literature. Unfortunately, beliefs in Scripture produced the most violent actions against man in the history of mankind up to that point.
The elimination of competing Christian cults (called heretics) by early Christian churches were the hotbed of violent atrocities against those who did not agree with the dogma of the Church. Later they followed the destruction of Rome by the Christian Goths and the secret pagan sacrifices consented by the Pope, the vandals who had the Bible with them while they destroyed the imperial North Africa, the crusades in the eleventh century fighting in the lands around the east Mediterranean, Palestine and Syria, capturing Jerusalem and establishing kingdoms from Anatolia to the Egyptian border.
In 1204 the Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople the holiest city of that time, with Christians battling Christians. And the massacres continued (and continue to this day). According to Romer, “more heretics and scholars were burned in the Middle Ages than those who were murdered in Carolingian times. For at this time the Inquisition came to carve, and torture, largely unused as an instrument of government from the Roman days, was reintroduced. ” In the 1380s, John Wycliffe translated the first English Bible that inspired an English religious revolution that caused persecution against him by the Catholic Church. In the early 1500s the German heretic, Martin Luther, almost by itself caused the final separation of the Roman Catholic Church and created the beginnings of the Protestant revolution. This division still influences violence to this day. He translated the Bible into German, which further spread Protestantism.
Luther also helped to spread anti-Jewish sentiments with his preaching and books like ” The Jews and Their Lies”, all supported through their interpretation of the Bible. It should not be forgotten that Hitler (a Christian and a great admirer of Luther) and his holocaust probably could not have happened without his influence and the support of the German believers who believed in the Bible. In the 1530s,
William Tyndale completed his version of the English Protestant Bible (probably with the help of Luther) and printed the first of them in English. He also felt the persecution of the Church and spent his last days in imprisonment and exile.
His enemies finally caught him and burned him at the stake, but because of his fame, he was strangled first. After the German Bible of Luther, others followed the example by translating the Bible into their native languages, including Dutch and French. Not until AD 1611 did a committee of translators and interpreters complete the most popular Bible of all time, the King James Version. Today we still have dozens of versions of Bible translations, with Bible scholars still discussing the meaning and proper translations of words and phrases.
SEE – The Necronomicon: The dangerous and forbidden “Book of the Dead”
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