In the south of ancient Mesopotamia was Sumeria, a region dominated by the Sumerian civilization that is established as one of the oldest in the world.
Among its riches is Sumerian mythology, a system of polytheistic beliefs that are known even before Christ, so there is a theory that all these stories served as the basis for the beginning of other religions.
Sumerian myths can be divided into several themes:
- About the origins: of the earth, of things.
- About the organization: the foundation of cities, the order in the world, social groups.
- About the gods‘ contact with men: the Seven Sages.
- The hero: Epic epics appear. The hero gains experience and knowledge from his travels.
- About the life of the gods.
The Sumerians worshiped a great number of deities. It is estimated that the gods of the Sumerian pantheon were thousands. But let’s talk about the most important.
An: Supreme Lord of Heaven (Also known as Anu by the Akkadians)
A was the god of heaven and as such, he was initially considered Lord of heaven and supreme god of the Sumerian pantheon. But later, this paper ended up sharing.
Enlil: the second king of the Sumerian gods
Enlil was the god of air, wind and storms, son of An and Ki. He assumed the role of the king of the gods. In some Sumerian myths, Enlil has been represented as a kind of creator god.
Enki: the creator of the Sumerian mythology man (Akkadians and Babylonians knew him as Ea)
Enki personified wisdom, magic, and enchantments and was one of the three most powerful Sumerian gods. Enki is credited with the creation of humanity, being according to Sumerian mythology, his protector. It was Enki, who warned Ziusudra of the flood that the gods intended to send to end the human species.
It plays a leading role: as examples would be: The descent of Inanna, The tree of Huluppu or Inanna and the god of wisdom. Inanna was worshiped by the Sumerians as the goddess of sexuality, passion, love, and war.
Apart from An, Enlil, Enki and Inanna, there were also three other deities that made up the group of the seven most important gods. One of them was Utu, the god of sun and justice.
In the most ancient periods of Sumerian history, Utu was regarded as Inanna’s twin brother. Another important deity was Ninhursag, worshiped as Mother Goddess and therefore associated with fertility, nature and life on Earth.
And another important god was Nanna, the god of the moon and wisdom. Sometimes this god was considered Inanna’s father. Its importance lay in the role it played during the process of Creation in Sumerian mythology.
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